fbpx
date icon May 30, 2024

Python Int to String and Other Conversions – A Beginner’s guide

CEO & Founder at CodeOp
var = 123
var = "CodeOp loves Python."
print(var)

Run that code, and you’ll get an output without any error. That’s because Python is a dynamic language. And that’s why I, along with countless other coders across the globe, love this language.

Type conversion, or typecasting, involves changing an object from one data type to another. It can be incredibly important when you need different data types to interact with or meet specific library or API requirements.

Central to Python’s flexibility is its approach to data types and operations involving them. Keep reading, and you’ll realise how easy it is to type conversions in Python 3.

1. Implicit Type Conversion

Implicit type conversion, also known as type coercion, is the automatic conversion of data types by the Python interpreter. This process occurs during runtime, without explicit direction from the programmer.

Numeric Conversion

num_int = 10 # An integer
num_float = 5.5 # A float

# Adding an integer and a float results in a float
result = num_int + num_float
print(result) # Output: 15.5
print(type(result)) # Output: <class 'float'>

Boolean and Integer

a = True # Boolean
b = 2 # Integer

# Boolean True is treated as 1
result = a + b
print(result) # Output: 3
print(type(result)) # Output: <class 'int'>

String and Integer in Print Statement

string = "The count is" # String
count = 5 # Integer

You can’t directly add an integer with a string because they’re vastly different data types. So, for this, you’ll have to either do explicit conversion or use a formatted string.

print(f"The count is {count}")

Formatted string is denoted by f”write_contents_here {variable_placeholder}”

Limitations of Implicit Conversions

While implicit conversions simplify many operations, they can also lead to subtle bugs and unexpected behaviour

Operations not clearly defined for mixed types without an explicit conversion will raise errors. For example, adding a string and an integer directly results in a TypeError.

2. Explicit Type Conversion

Explicit type conversion, or typecasting, is when the programmer directs the program to convert data from one type to another using built-in Python functions.

Converting to Integers

print(int(3.5)) # Outputs: 3
print(int('10')) # Outputs: 10
print(int(True)) # Outputs: 1

Note: int() cannot directly convert strings with decimal points or non-numeric strings and will raise a value error if attempted.

Converting to Floats

print(float(1)) # Outputs: 1.0
print(float('3.14')) # Outputs: 3.14
print(float('10')) # Outputs: 10.0

Note: Similar to int(), trying to convert a non-numeric string to a float will result in a value error.

Converting to Strings

Here’s how you use the str() function.

print(str(10)) # Outputs: '10'
print(str(3.14)) # Outputs: '3.14'
print(str([1, 2, 3])) # Outputs: '[1, 2, 3]'

Using str.join():

elements = ['Hello', 'world']
greeting = ' '.join(elements)
print(greeting) # Outputs: "Hello world"

If you know how to use list comprehension, you can do it like this:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4]
strings = [str(num) for num in numbers]
result = ', '.join(strings)
print(result) # Outputs: "1, 2, 3, 4"

Using map():

It does what it says. The map() method maps the data to the desired data type.

numbers = [1, 2, 3]
strings = map(str, numbers) # Converts numbers to strings
result = ', '.join(strings)
print(result) # Outputs: "1, 2, 3"

Using str.format():

template = "{0} is {1} years old."
sentence = template.format("John", 30)
Print (sentence) # Outputs: "John is 30 years old."

Converting to Boolean Values

print(bool(1)) # Outputs: True
print(bool(0)) # Outputs: False
print(bool('')) # Outputs: False
print(bool('Hello')) # Outputs: True

Database and API Interactions

Converting complex data structures to JSON format using JSON.dumps() is common when interacting with databases or APIs.

import json
data_dict = {'id': 101, 'name': 'John'}
json_data = json.dumps(data_dict)
# Now, json_data can be sent as a payload to an API

3. Converting Between Collections

Python provides straightforward functions for these conversions:

Convert to List: The list() function converts a given iterable (tuples, sets, dictionaries) into a list.

my_tuple = (1, 2, 3)
my_list = list(my_tuple)
print(my_list) # Output: [1, 2, 3]

Convert to Tuple: The tuple() function transforms a list or set into a tuple.

my_list = [1, 2, 3]
my_tuple = tuple(my_list)
print(my_tuple) # Output: (1, 2, 3)

Convert to Set: The set() function turns a list or tuple into a set, automatically removing duplicate elements.

my_list = [1, 1, 2, 3, 3]
my_set = set(my_list)
print(my_set) # Output: {1, 2, 3}

Converting to Dictionaries: zip() and dict() are commonly used together to create a dictionary from two lists or tuples, where one serves as a key and the other as a value.

keys = ['name', 'age', 'gender']
values = ['John', 30, 'Male']
my_dict = dict(zip(keys, values))
print(my_dict) # Output: {'name': 'John', 'age': 30, 'gender': 'Male'}

4. User Input Handling

User inputs through functions like input() are received as strings. Conversion to integers or floats is necessary to use these inputs in numerical calculations.

age = input("Enter your age: ")
age = int(age) # Convert to integer
print(f"You are {age} years old.")
Author: Katrina Walker
CEO & Founder at CodeOp
Originally from the San Francisco Bay Area, I relocated to South Europe in 2016 to explore the growing tech scene from a data science perspective. After working as a data scientist in both the public...
More from Katrina →